Tag Archives: alternative health

Why Psychiatry needs CES

The prime directive – Do No Harm

The primary duty to patients should be to “do no harm”. Avoiding harm typically results in an approach that follows a spectrum of interventions beginning with treatments that pose the least risk of adverse side effects.

The harm reduction approach increases the likelihood patients will benefit without being exposed to unnecessary risks of harm. CES should be included in the spectrum of available treatments as it poses very low risk of harm to patients.


CES as a safe and effective alternative

People worried about the use of pharmaceutical drugs should consider CES as a safe and effective alternative

The FDA has expressed concern as to utilization of CES without first employing more “conventional” treatments. Unfortunately, the more conventional treatments at times are not only ineffective but also in many circumstances contribute to a worsening of the condition or result in deleterious side effects.

This can result in necessary therapeutic alliance adversely impacted. Frequently, patients will mention the advertisements they see on television by various attorneys soliciting patients who have been harmed by approved medications, ECT or other treatments. They are worried about being harmed by prescribed treatments and become suspicious of their health care professionals.

There is excellent data and clinical experience however to support the safety and lack of adverse side effects from CES and it should be included in the spectrum of available treatments as it poses very low risk of harm to patients.

Excerpts from “A View from the Trenches” written by Jason Worchel, M.D.

More CES Research – http://www.cesultra.com/research-resources.htm

CES Ultra as a modern “electrosleep” device

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) is the American FDA’s term for what the rest of the world calls “electrosleep.” Modern electrosleep devices originated in Russia in 1953, and arrived in the U.S. ten years later, in 1963, when they began to be researched with patients complaining of insomnia.

Various uses of small to moderate electrical currents had been researched since the early 1900s in Europe, in an attempt to see exactly what current intensity and pulse rate were required to put a patient to sleep when applied to the head. By that, they meant what was required to knock him out or force him to lose consciousness and maintain the patient in that state for a period of time. Researchers finally gave up on finding a specific type of current that would reliably put most patients to sleep. Unlike those earlier models, modern CES devices are typically pocket sized, run off of a 9 volt battery, and pulse from 100 up to 15,000 times per second. The current intensity usually is at or just below 1 mAmp, but can go up to 4 mAmp with higher pulse rates. Most would just light a flashlight bulb at best, and in the majority of clinical studies, patients have not felt the stimulation at all during treatment.

In the early 1950s Russian medical researchers were working with these very low levels of current, which they applied via two electrodes attached to the closed eyelids and two attached behind the head at the base of the skull. They were attempting to find a psychiatrically useful current, and while the current level was much too low to force a person into a sleep state, they found to their great interest that patients were claiming vastly improved sleep during nights following sessions when these very minor amounts of stimulation passed across the head. They then began studying this effect specifically, and in 1953 finally came out with the Somniatron electrosleep device.

Several similar devices were later manufactured in the U.S. for research purposes, and their clinical use began among inpatient and outpatient psychiatric patients, usually in University Teaching Hospitals. Several other Universities began research with animals in an effort to see if CES really did change how the brain functioned, if it was safe to use, and what the mechanism of action might be.

They found that the current traveled throughout the brain, that it increased production and firing of neurotransmitters in neurons,3 and that when researchers deliberately threw neurotransmitters out of balance in the brain, electrosleep would put them back in balance. Other researchers found that electrosleep would apparently also put back into balance neurotransmitters in human patients whose neurotransmitters had been thrown out of balance by various addicting substances.

By Ray B. Smith, Ph.D

Healthy aging

Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural, and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.

During the last century, average life expectancy in developed countries was prolonged approximately 30 years. In addition, a significant decline in fertility generated a shift in the distribution of the population with important socio-economic, political, and public health consequences (UN-Report, 2005). The fact that there are more old people today than ever before, and that this tendency is expected to increase further, underlines the importance of understanding the mechanisms of healthy aging as well as developing novel innovative strategies to adapt for age-relate declines.

Besides age-associated diseases, like cardiovascular diseases or cancer (Balducci and Extermann, 2000), age-related neurobiological changes with consecutive declines in cognitive functions, perceptual, and motor abilities impair activities of daily living, independence, and quality of life (Logsdon et al., 2002; Craik and Bialystok, 2006). In cognition, age-related deficits encompass multiple domains, including attention, memory, reasoning, and executive functions (Celsis, 2000; Hogan et al., 2006). Age-related motor impairments are also ubiquitous, with deficits in the planning, the execution and the control of movement (Krampe et al., 2002; Sawaki et al., 2003). Physiologically, aging consists of a dynamic process in the brain, involving a number of modifications associated with metabolic, structural, and functional changes, part of them hypothesized as adaptive responses to the functional declines (Burke and Barnes, 2006).

In recent years, different forms of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have been explored in patients and healthy volunteers offering the attractive option to modulate neuronal plasticity and to improve behavior and learning processes (Hummel and Cohen, 2006; Nitsche et al., 2008; Reis et al., 2009). In the present review, we will focus on studies using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques to evaluate cortical mechanisms during healthy aging, especially the one involved in preserving cognitive and motor funcNon-2010.00149tions. Furthermore, the novel field of applying these techniques to increase behavior, neuronal plasticity and learning, e.g., in the sensorimotor domain as a model system, will be presented. Rather than attempting to be comprehensive in terms of reviewed work, this article intends to provide a clearly structured framework of the application of these techniques to understand and support plastic changes in the aging population.