All scales receive the score above the X that the patient placed on each line, with the exception of the Time to Go To Sleep, in which the score is from 0 to 10, with one minute scored 0 and 50+ minutes scored 10. To get the total score for each scale just add the scores of the individual items together.
The depression and anxiety scales can be used alone for the study of those disorders, or the depression scale can be used along with the hypomania scale to study emotion swings in bipolar patients.
All 4 LIkert Scales
download them as pdf files
Statistical Note: These scales obviously force non linear data onto a linear scale for statistical handling. If groups of patients are studied pre and post treatment, it is best to let each group serve as its own control due to the error variance that can be best held constant in that manner
If a patient is to be individually clinically examined, then the percent change score as a result of treatment can be obtained by dividing the pre treatment score into the post treatment score and multiplying the result by 100.
Statistician. If a researcher wishes, he can email the scores in two separate groups, such as “group A” and “group B” to Ray Smith at ray.smith@Nastos.com, and he will do the statistical analysis and email the results back, usually within a couple of days.
Journal Write-up. If a researcher wishes, Dr. Smith will also write up the study for publication if the researcher will give him the name of the journal he wishes it published in so he can follow that journal’s author’s format.
Both of the above services are free for CES studies, though ethically, Dr. Smith has to append his name to the end of a published study he has been involved with.
Presented by cesultra.com
CES is a safe, initial alternative to medications.
There are many non-pharmacologic interventions for reducing anxiety. Some of these include dietary supplements, acupuncture, meditation, yoga, and exercise. These interventions, however, are not employed by a large segment of society that suffers from anxiety. These persons instead seek medications from their physician to alleviate their suffering. Typical classes of medications for anxiety include the SSRI’s, benzodiazepines as well as the off label use of antihistamines and atypical antipsychotic medications and antiepileptic medications. In addition to the inherent problems with SSRI’s, there are also problems with the other classes of medications. A serious potential side effect of benzodiazepines is their potential for inducing physical and psychological dependence. In addition, withdrawal symptoms can prove life threatening, especially with the shorter acting benzodiazepines like alprazolam. When taken as directed, which is often not the case; this class of medications can result in compromised coordination, slowed reaction time, falls, disinhibition, delirium, and anterograde amnesia.
It is not uncommon to see suicide attempts involving a combination of a benzodiazepines together with alcohol and/or another sedative hypnotic. While buspirone is relatively well tolerated, it has poor efficacy and a 3 to 4 week lag time to have an effect. Medications such as gabapentin are used off label but there is no research to support its efficacy for anxiety disorders. Unfortunately, physicians have begun using the atypical antipsychotic medications to treat anxiety. This class of medications has a large and increasing number of very serious side effects. Recent attention has been focused on their causing metabolic syndrome. They frequently cause extra pyramidal side effects, sedation, elevated prolactin levels and drug/drug interactions. All of these medications should be avoided during pregnancy and used with caution in the elderly. In short, the side effect profile of current pharmacologic treatments for anxiety limits their safe use.
Excerpts from “A View from the Trenches” written by Jason Worchel, M.D.
More CES Research – https://www.cesultra.com/research-resources.php