Currently, one tool investigators use to determine both underlying psychopathology as well as potential mechanisms of action of various treatments involves functional MRI (fMRI). It was my (Jason Worchel, M.D.) goal to apply this type of investigation to CES. With the assistance of Neal Rudtledge, MD, a neuroradiologist in Austin, Texas, we explored the safety of using CES in a fMRI environment. Using 30 foot leads, we attached a CES unit to a phantom head within a MRI. There were no noted adverse effects to the equipment or other unusual phenomenon noted. Subsequently, I used CES on myself while undergoing a fMRI study. There were no adverse events experienced with either the equipment or to me. Though we did not have the resources to conduct a full scale research study; i.e. design a specified protocol to ascertain specific effects and provide for blinding or placebo intervention, the process did confirm that fMRI appears to be a safe modality for the study of CES. Excerpts from “A View from the Trenches” written by Jason Worchel, M.D.More CES Research –